Knowledge of the National Fire Danger Rating System levels can help forest visitors, homeowners and contractors make decisions regarding recreation, debris burning and equipment use activities. fire danger ratings describe conditions that reflect the potential, over a large area, for a fire to ignite, spread and require suppression action. Fuels, weather, topography and risks are used to set the fire danger ratings.
1. Stream Bank Stabilization
2. Vegetated Geo-Grid
3. Iowa Vanes
4. Vegetative Riprap
5. Stone Riprap
6. Pilings with Wire or Geotextile Fencings
7. Dormant Post Plantings
8. Coconut Fiber Rolls
9. Branch Packing 10. Live Fascine and a few others.
Is your forested property in a condition that could survive a wildfire? Have you reduced the slash to the point that it’s not a hazard? Could firefighters easily get to a wildfire on your property?
Although Reducing Fire Risk on Your Property is a Pacific Northwest Extension Publication, it provides relevant suggestions for making forested property more fire-resistant and provides references that specifically address the area of defensible space immediately around homes, cabins, or other structures.
Data collected from over 1 million forest plots reveals patterns of where plant roots form symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria.
In and around the tangled roots of the forest floor, fungi and bacteria grow with trees, exchanging nutrients for carbon in a vast, global marketplace. A new effort to map the most abundant of these symbiotic relationships – involving more than 1.1 million forest sites and 28,000 tree species – has revealed factors that determine where different types of symbionts will flourish.
The work could help scientists understand how symbiotic partnerships structure the world’s forests and how they could be affected by a warming climate.
Stanford University researchers worked alongside a team of over 200 scientists to generate these maps, published May 15 in Nature.
The group used their map to predict how symbioses might change by 2070 if carbon emissions continue unabated. This scenario resulted in a 10 percent reduction in the biomass of tree species that associate with a type of fungi found primarily in cooler regions.
The data behind this map represents real trees from more than 70 countries and collaboration between hundreds of researchers who speak different languages, study different ecosystems and confront different challenges.
“There are more than 1.1 million forest plots in the dataset and every one of those was measured by a person on the ground. In many cases, as part of these measurements, they essentially gave the tree a hug,” said Brian Steidinger, a Stanford University researcher. “So much effort – hikes, sweat, ticks, long days – is in that map.”
Removal of invasive shrubs has exceeded expectations for regeneration of native plants according to recent Penn State University research. Native shrubs that are mixed with invasive shrubs can recolonize on their own when invasives are removed. Read more…
Where eradication of invasive plants is not feasible, reducing their density and abundance to a level which allows native species to thrive through an integrated pest management approach is a viable alternative. Read more…
By Richard Hines, retired wildlife biologist
Prior to the outbreak of the Chestnut Blight, American chestnut trees once occupied 25% of the entire forest canopy over most of the Eastern United States. Its loss was an ecological disaster and for years researchers have worked tirelessly attempting to find a strain of trees that would be resistant. After years of work there may be hope for the return of this forest giant. Thanks to an understanding of genetics and efforts of numerous scientists along with concerned citizens a solution may be close.
At the KWOA Conference this past March, Rick Caldwell presented the group with the latest findings on how the chestnut is fairing.
Caldwell, who is the Arborist for Bernheim Forest, and President of the Kentucky Chapter of the Chestnut Foundation said, “for the past 35 years, we have been doing traditional crossbreeding between the American chestnut and the Chinese chestnut”. In addition to normal crosses, researchers have been backcrossing trees continually trying to captive more of the American chestnut genetics. Intercrosses have also been used in every effort possible to restore this magnificent tree to the landscape.
Through these efforts, Caldwell said, “we now have a tree that is about 94% American and 6% Chinese”. Overall, the result to this point is a tree referred to as the B3F3 tree. Through backcrossing three times plus additional intercrossing researchers are now working with a tree that for all practical purposes is 15/16 American Chestnut. The question will continue, how resistant and/or tolerant is this tree to the chestnut blight.
While the group continues working with traditional breeding programs, Caldwell described how the Foundation has a new transgenic tree that researchers at New York State University which has had a wheat gene inserted that has further helped improve resistance. Currently, this new tree is showing about 99% resistance. Before any releases of this new tree can take place or before this is introduced into the breeding program, both the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency will have to approve the resulting tree. Caldwell added, “this is a very promising direction we are going, combining both transgenic and traditional breeding programs”. The process of developing a transgenic organism occurs when DNA material from another organism is inserted the target organism. In this case, a gene from wheat is being inserted into the experimental chestnut trees. Caldwell indicated that this may be the one that can finally start restoration efforts.
American Chestnut was such a large component of America’s eastern forests when it disappeared that researchers calculated that around 25 billion trees were lost. A tree that was essential to rural families for not only food, livestock feed, but lumber and numerous other wood products was essentially gone. From the standpoint of wildlife, the chestnut was the primary food consistently producing well over 5 to 10X the poundage of mast that oaks and other hardwood trees currently produce. Unlike oaks, there is no variation in annual mast production due in part to a June flowering date which reduces susceptibility to early spring freezes.
An effort is underway to locate potential sites to establish mother orchards. If you are interested in becoming involved, you can contact Rick Caldwell at email@example.com or call him on his cell phone at 502-807-2257.
Andrew Deutz from The Nature Conservancy regarding the new United Nations report on biodiversity:
One of the cheapest, most readily available and cost-effective things that we can do to both solve the biodiversity crisis and the climate crisis is, first, stop deforestation and, second, restore forests and then, third, change our agricultural practices to increase soil carbon and soil health.
Source: What Can Be Done To Prevent Mass Extinctions
May 12, 2019 on NPR Weekend Edition Sunday
The goal of this field guide is to provide examples of environmentally sensitive maintenance practices, which if implemented reduce erosion and sediment, maintain subsurface hydrologic connectivity, restore drainage density to more natural conditions, and eliminate diversion potential.
Additionally environmentally sensitive maintenance practices reduce long term maintenance costs and lengthen maintenance cycles.
UK Forestry and Natural Resources Extension recently partnered with some of its neighbor Forestry Extension programs to offer a woodland and wildlife webinar series. More than 30 Kentucky County Extension Offices hosted the series.
The series featured forestry and wildlife experts from around the region with the final webinar highlighting programs and organizations available to support Kentucky’s woodland owners.
View the Woodland Stewards Webinar Series … “Getting to Know Your Woodlands: A Primer for Beginners Webinar Series“. http://www.forestrywebinars.net/webinars/woodland-stewards-webinar-series-introduction-to-your-woodlands
In addition to this webinar series, UK Forestry and Natural Resources Extension has more than 10 other webinar recordings that you can view for free… http://forestry.ca.uky.edu/previous_webinars
This publication provides forest landowners with some low cost alternatives to expensive commercial quality forestry tools
Washington State University Extension, EM038E, 2011