Category Archives: Practices

Best management practices for woodland managagement

Encouraging results in invasive species managment approaches

Removal of invasive shrubs has exceeded expectations for regeneration of native plants according to recent Penn State University research. Native shrubs that are mixed with invasive shrubs can recolonize on their own when invasives are removed. Read more…

Where eradication of invasive plants is not feasible, reducing their density and abundance to a level which allows native species to thrive through an integrated pest management approach is a viable alternative. Read more…

Update on the status of the American chestnut

By Richard Hines, retired wildlife biologist

Prior to the outbreak of the Chestnut Blight, American chestnut trees once occupied 25% of the entire forest canopy over most of the Eastern United States. Its loss was an ecological disaster and for years researchers have worked tirelessly attempting to find a strain of trees that would be resistant. After years of work there may be hope for the return of this forest giant. Thanks to an understanding of genetics and efforts of numerous scientists along with concerned citizens a solution may be close.

At the KWOA Conference this past March, Rick Caldwell presented the group with the latest findings on how the chestnut is fairing.

Caldwell, who is the Arborist for Bernheim Forest, and President of the Kentucky Chapter of the Chestnut Foundation said, “for the past 35 years, we have been doing traditional crossbreeding between the American chestnut and the Chinese chestnut”. In addition to normal crosses, researchers have been backcrossing trees continually trying to captive more of the American chestnut genetics. Intercrosses have also been used in every effort possible to restore this magnificent tree to the landscape.

Through these efforts, Caldwell said, “we now have a tree that is about 94% American and 6% Chinese”.  Overall, the result to this point is a tree referred to as the B3F3 tree. Through backcrossing three times plus additional intercrossing researchers are now working with a tree that for all practical purposes is 15/16 American Chestnut. The question will continue, how resistant and/or tolerant is this tree to the chestnut blight.

While the group continues working with traditional breeding programs, Caldwell described how the Foundation has a new transgenic tree that researchers at New York State University which has had a wheat gene inserted that has further helped improve resistance. Currently, this new tree is showing about 99% resistance. Before any releases of this new tree can take place or before this is introduced into the breeding program, both the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency will have to approve the resulting tree. Caldwell added, “this is a very promising direction we are going, combining both transgenic and traditional breeding programs”. The process of developing a transgenic organism occurs when DNA material from another organism is inserted the target organism. In this case, a gene from wheat is being inserted into the experimental chestnut trees. Caldwell indicated that this may be the one that can finally start restoration efforts.

American Chestnut was such a large component of America’s eastern forests when it disappeared that researchers calculated that around 25 billion trees were lost. A tree that was essential to rural families for not only food, livestock feed, but lumber and numerous other wood products was essentially gone. From the standpoint of wildlife, the chestnut was the primary food consistently producing well over 5 to 10X the poundage of mast that oaks and other hardwood trees currently produce.  Unlike oaks, there is no variation in annual mast production due in part to a June flowering date which reduces susceptibility to early spring freezes.

An effort is underway to locate potential sites to establish mother orchards. If you are interested in becoming involved, you can contact Rick Caldwell at rcaldwell@bernheim.org or call him on his cell phone at 502-807-2257.

Stop deforestation and restore forests to solve biodiversity and climate change crises

Andrew Deutz from The Nature Conservancy regarding the new United Nations report on biodiversity:

One of the cheapest, most readily available and cost-effective things that we can do to both solve the biodiversity crisis and the climate crisis is, first, stop deforestation and, second, restore forests and then, third, change our agricultural practices to increase soil carbon and soil health.

Source: What Can Be Done To Prevent Mass Extinctions

May 12, 2019 on NPR Weekend Edition Sunday

Maintain Dirt and Gravel Forest Roads

The goal of this field guide is to provide examples of environmentally sensitive maintenance practices, which if implemented reduce erosion and sediment, maintain subsurface hydrologic connectivity, restore drainage density to more natural conditions, and eliminate diversion potential.

Additionally environmentally sensitive maintenance practices reduce long term maintenance costs and lengthen maintenance cycles.

Road Maintenance

 

Woodland Owner Webinar Series Recordings Available

UK Forestry and Natural Resources Extension recently partnered with some of its neighbor Forestry Extension programs to offer a woodland and wildlife webinar series. More than 30 Kentucky County Extension Offices hosted  the series.

 

The series featured forestry and wildlife experts from around the region with the final webinar highlighting programs and organizations available to support Kentucky’s woodland owners.

 

View the Woodland Stewards Webinar Series … “Getting to Know Your Woodlands: A Primer for Beginners Webinar Series“. http://www.forestrywebinars.net/webinars/woodland-stewards-webinar-series-introduction-to-your-woodlands

 

In addition to this webinar series, UK Forestry and Natural Resources Extension has more than 10 other webinar recordings that you can view for free… http://forestry.ca.uky.edu/previous_webinars

The Lost Art of Floating Logs

It was a center jam—a potential man killer. Huge 16-foot saw logs, weighing up to 2,000 pounds, crunched against one another like shoestring potatoes in a crazy man’s skillet. Logs were jammed up for half a mile back.

The river boss was all over the place, trying to find the key log. When he spotted it, a dozen men set their peavey hooks into it and strained. No go. Then the river boss ordered a charge of dynamite. “Whoomp!” went the explosion and a white plume of water shot skyward. That did it. “She’s a-pullin’!” went up the cry.

That’s a log drive—one of the most spectacular and action-packed features of America’s annual timber harvest that reaches a total of 35 billion feet a year.

Read more…

This feature originally appears in the May 1949 issue of Popular Mechanics.

Tune in to weekly radio broadcast for woodland owners

From the Woods Kentucky is a weekly radio show broadcast by the University of Kentucky Department of Forestry and Natural Resources on WRFL 88.1 FM Lexington. The show airs during summer 2019 on Thursdays from 10 – 11A on 88.1 FM in Lexington.

From the Woods Kentucky - Summer 2019

Recordings of From the Woods Kentucky are archived for listening at your convenience. Prior topics include firewood, woodlands owners, deer, watersheds, citizen science and many more.